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Tuesday , 23 May 2017
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(تهران - Tehrān) is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province. With a population of around 8.4 million in the city and 13 million in the wider metropolitan area, Tehran is Iran's largest city and urban area, the largest city in Western Asia and one of the largest three cities in the Middle East (along with Istanbul and Cairo).

In pre-Islamic times, part of the area of present-day Tehran was occupied by Rey. It was destroyed by the Mongols in the early 13th century. In 1796, Agha Mohammad Khan chose Tehran as Iran's new capital, in order to remain in close reach of Iran's territories in the Caucasus, at that time still part of Iran, and to avoid vying factions of previous Iranian dynasties. Throughout Iran's history, the capital has been moved many times; Tehran is the 32nd national capital of Iran.

Large scale demolition and rebuilding took place beginning in the 1920s and 1930s, and Tehran has been the subject of mass migration of people from all over Iran up until the present. The city is home to many historic mosques as well as several churches, synagogues and Zoroastrian fire temples. However, modern structures, notably Azadi Tower and the Milad Tower, have come to symbolize the city. Tehran is ranked 29th in the world by the population of its metropolitan area Although a variety of unofficial languages are spoken, roughly 99% of the population understand and speak Persian.

The majority of the inhabitants of the city are Persians, but there are also populations of other Iranian ethnicities such as Azerbaijanis, Lurs, Armenians, Kurds and other ethnic groups who speak Persian as their second language.[5] The majority of people in Tehran identify themselves as Persians.

There has been a desire to relocate Iran's capital from Tehran to another area at some point in the future, because Tehran is prone to earthquakes. Shahroud, Esfahan and Semnan have been suggested as alternative sites

 

 

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National Museum of Iran

The National Museum of Iran (Persian: موزهٔ ملیِ ایران - Muze ye Melli ye Irān‎) is located in Tehran, Iran.

It is the combination of two buildings which include the Museum of Ancient Iran ("Muze ye Irān e Bāstān", a Sassanid brick revival building inaugurated in 1937), and the white travertine Museum of the Islamic Era ("Muze ye Dowrān e Eslāmi", inaugurated in 1972).

It hosts historical monuments dating back through preserved ancient and medieval Iranian antiquities. These works include pottery vessels, metal objects, textile remains, and some rare books and coins

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There are a number of research departments in the museum, including Paleolithic and Osteological departments, and a center for Pottery Studies.

The Museum of Ancient Iran was designed by French architect Andre Godard in the early 20th century. It has an area of approximately 11000 square meters. Building began in 1935 and was completed within two years by Abbas Ali Memar and Morad Tabrizi. The museum was officially inaugurated in 1937.

The second building, the Museum of the Islamic Era, built on the grassy grounds of the Museum of Ancient Iran, went through quite a few hasty interior changes, and was still being remodeled when the 1979 Revolution swept the country.

While the old building always had a clear mandate to show archaeological relics (and also some rare medieval textiles and rug pieces), the new building began its life by featuring the exquisite Amlash pottery from the prehistoric Caspian Sea regions of Iran. This was followed by some modern arts, and the repeated gutting and remodeling of the interior.

The older building consists of three halls. The halls contain artifacts and fossils from the lower, middle, and upper Paleolithic, as well as the Neolithic, Chalcolithic, early and late Bronze Age, and Iron Ages I-III, through the Median, Achaemenid, Seleucid, Parthian, and Sassanid periods.

The newer building consists of three floors. It contains various pieces of pottery, textiles, texts, artworks, astrolabes, and adobe calligraphy, from Iran's post-Islamic era.

Plans are underway for the construction of another building, as the current ones lack the capacity and standards for preserving all of the excavated treasures.

 

Golestan Palace

The Golestan Palace (Persian: کاخ گلستان - Kāx e Golestān‎), literally the Roseland Palace, is the former royal Qajar complex in Iran's capital city, Tehran.

The oldest of the historic monuments in Tehran, a world heritage, the Golestan Palace belongs to a group of royal buildings that were once enclosed within the mud-thatched walls of Tehran’s Historic Arg (citadel).

Tehran’s Historic Arg was built during the reign of Tahmasp I (r. 1524-1576) of the Safavid dynasty (1502–1736), and was later renovated by Karim Khan of Zand (r. 1750-1779). Agha Mohammad Khan of Qajar (1742–1797) chose Tehran as his capital. The Arg became the site of the Qajar (1794–1925). The Court and the Golestan Palace became the official residence of the royal Qajar family. The palace was rebuilt to its current form in 1865 by Haji Ab ol Hasan Mimar Navai.

During the Pahlavi era (1925–1979), Golestan Palace was used for formal royal receptions, and the Pahlavi dynasty built their own palace at Niavaran (Niavaran Palace Complex). The most important ceremonies, held in the palace during the Pahlavi era, were the coronation of Reza Shah (r. 1925-1941) on the Marble Throne and the coronation of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi (r. 1941-deposed 1979) in the Museum Hall.

In between 1925 and 1945, a large portion of the buildings of the palace were destroyed on the orders of Reza Shah. He believed that the centuries-old Qajar palace should not hinder the growth of a modern city. In the place of the old buildings, commercial buildings with the modern style of 1950s and 1960s were erected.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Milad Tower

Milad Tower (Persian: برج میلاد‎ Borj-e Milād), also known as Tehran Tower (Persian: برج تهران‎ Borj-e Tehrān), is a multi-purpose Iranian concrete tower built in 2007 in between the Shahrak-e Gharb and Gisha districts of Tehran. It stands at 435 m (1,427 ft) from base to the tip of the antenna.[5] The head consists of a large pod with 12 floors, the roof of which is at 315 m (1,033 ft). Below this is a staircase and elevators to reach the area.

 

Milad Tower location on center of map in dark blue

Milad Tower is the sixth tallest tower in the world[6] after the Tokyo Skytree, Canton Tower in Guangzhou, CN Tower in Toronto, Ostankino Tower in Moscow, the Oriental Pearl Tower in Shanghai. It is also the 17th tallest freestanding structure in the world.

Milad Tower is a part of The Tehran International Trade and Convention Centre. The project includes the Milad telecommunication tower offering restaurants at the top with panoramic views of Tehran, a five-star hotel, a convention centre, a world trade centre, and an IT park. The complex seeks to respond to the needs of business in the globalised world of the 21st century by offering facilities combining trade, information, communication, convention and accommodation all in one place

 

The Saadabad Palace

 is a palace built by the Pahlavi dynasty of Iran in the Shemiran area of Tehran and currently official residence of the President of Iran. The complex was first inhabited by Qajar monarchs and royal family in the 19th century. After an expansion of the compounds, Reza Shah lived there in the 1920s. And his son, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi moved there in the 1970s. After the Iranian Revolution, the complex became a museum. However, the current presidential palace is located adjacent to the Sa'dabad compound.

Zoroastrianism was the national faith of Iran for more than a millennium before the Arab conquest. It has had an immense influence on Iranian philosophy, culture and art after the people of Iran converted to Islam.

Today of the 98% of Muslims living in Iran, around 89% are Shi’a and only around 9% are Sunni.This is quite the opposite trend of the percentage distribution of Shi’a to Sunni Islam followers in the rest of the Muslim population from state to state (primarily in the Middle East) and throughout the rest of the world.

Tehran has many modern and chic restaurants, serving both traditional Iranian and cosmopolitan cuisine. The most popular dish of the city is the chelow kabab (kabob/kebab is originally a Persian word meaning grilled or roasted meat). However, Western-style fast food is becoming popular, especially within the younger generation. Pizza, sandwich and kebab shops make up the majority of other food outlets in the city.

Tehran has a wide range of shopping opportunities, from traditional bazaars to shopping districts and modern shopping malls. The great Bazaar of Tehran and the Tajrish bazaar are the biggest traditional bazaars in Tehran. Shopping districts such as Valiasr, Shariati, Mirdamad have shopping with a wide range of different shops. Big malls like Tirajeh, Golestan, Hyperstar and smaller shopping centers like Tandis, Golestan and Safavieh are popular among Tehran’s population and visitors. Most of the international brands and upper class shops are located in the northern and western part of the city, and the rest of the shops are distributed in all the areas of the city. Tehran’s retail business is growing with new malls and shopping centers being built. The biggest malls under construction are the Tehran Mega Mall, Kourosh Mall and Tehran Mall, and smaller “luxurious” shopping centers like Zafaranieh or Farmanieh shopping center.

http://www.tripadvisor.com/Attractions-g293999-Activities-c26-Tehran_Tehran_Province.html

Tehran features a semi-arid, continental climate (Koppen climate classification: BSk). Tehran's climate is largely defined by its geographic location, with the towering Alborz Mountains to its north and the central desert to the south. It can be generally described as mild in the spring and autumn, hot and dry in the summer, and cold in the winter. Because the city is large with significant differences in elevation among various districts, the weather is often cooler in the hilly north than in the flat southern part of Tehran. For instance, the 17.3 km (10.7 mi) Vali E Asr street runs from the Tehran's railway station than, 1,117 m (3,665 ft) elevation above sea level, in the south of the city to the Tajrish square, 1,612 m (5,289 ft) elevation above sea level, in the north.However, the elevation can even rise up to 1,900 m (6,200 ft) at the end of the Velenjak street in the north of Tehran.

he main handicrafts pursued in the province are engraving on copper and brass, Khatam (inlaid), wood carvings and basket making, glassware, painted glass, ‘Zeelu’ or kind of carpet, leather paintings, carpet weaving, pottery making, weaving of mats, hand woven or knitted articles, batik purist, jajeem or loosely woven woolen cloth, Kilim or coarse carpet, satchel making, dyeing and weaving. Antiques can be obtained from Manuchehri Avenue which forms the center for such articles. Handicraft centers are located in Taleqani Avenue and Ostad Nejatollahi Avenue. Carpets are available in Bazaar-e-Bozorg of Tehran and Ferdowsi Avenue.